Atomic deconstruction at the quantum level was first demonstrated experimentally nearly a hundred years ago by the ill-fated Genesis project. The Genesis project had the objective of terraforming by quickly transforming a lifeless planet to a life supporting world. This terraforming technique was never put into practice as the reformatting matrix used unstable matter. The resulting planet suffered hyper-evolution, self-destructing only a few days after its reformation.
Adm. Leonard McCoy,Ph.D. who witnessed the (now classified) incident involving the Genesis Device, reported that it could be used as a horrible weapon of war, a doomsday weapon. Starfleet Command held an inquiry with the scientists and the Officers of the U.S.S. Enterprise, to determine the wisdom of further pursuing the project. It was decided that the technology behind Genesis was to dangerous to develop, and that humanity was insufficiently advanced to use it wisely. All records were compiled into a single, highly classified data file and hidden with a permanent encryption code in the computers at Memory Alpha.
For decades that file was forgotten. It wasn't until months before the close of the Dominion War that it was found by a periodic memory sweep. The encryption code that hid the document, while perfectly adequate for the time it was compiled, was not sophisticated enough to evade anti-tampering programs developed in the intervening years. At first, the file was identified as a "mole" program and computer security officers were alerted. It was only upon decryption that Starfleet realized what it had recovered.
Starfleet Command questioned the Intelligence branch why this file had not been better documented. This could be the weapon that the Borg would have no defense against. Had its existence been known, the disaster at Wolf 359 would have been avoided. Research into this weapon was re-initiated, as it was firmly agreed by all that it was needed. After poring over the data and debating on the protomatter production, it was suggested to eliminate the protomatter altogether. This would create a device that deconstructed its target, as if it had been dematerialized by an enormous transporter beam.
The newly-christened "Nemesis Device" is modified from a Class V Medium Range Probe and can be launched from all standard torpedo launchers. It is capable of reaching warp 3.5, allowing plenty of time for the launching vessel to get clear of the effect radius. As Borg cubes do not use shields, this weapon should have little trouble destroying them.
The yield of the warhead is adjustable. This gives commanders a choice in how much matter will be disintegrated. This way, a planetary site can be destroyed without hazarding of the entire planet.